To answer these questions, we dive into Chapter 9 of Conjectures and Refutations: *Why are the Calculi of Logic and Arithmetic Applicable to Reality?*.

But before we get to that, we touch on some of the good stuff: evolutionary psychology, cunnilingus, and why Robin is better than Batman.

**References**:

- Conjectures and Refutations, Chapter 9: Why are the Calculi of Logic and Arithmetic Applicable to Reality? https://books.google.ca/books?id=iXp9AwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
- Ben on Do Explain with Christofer Lovgren
- Debate between Spelke and Pinker
- Very Bad Wizards discussing the paper "Oral Sex as Infidelity detection" (episode, paper).
- Sturgeon's Law: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sturgeon%27s_law#:~:text=Sturgeon%27s%20law%20(or%20Sturgeon%27s%20revelation,science%20fiction%20author%20and%20critic.
- Eugene Wigner's paper
*The Unreasonable Effective of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences*. - Stoic versus Aristotelian logic. Here is a nice discussion of the differences between the two.
- Rob Wiblin's tweet that all probabilities are subjective probabilities (in an otherwise very good thread).
- Buhler's three functions of language: (i) Expressive, (ii) Signaling, and (iii) Descriptive. See the "Organon Model".
- Piece on Brett Weinstein and Ivermectin.

**Quotes:**

“The indescribable world I have in mind is, of course, the world I have ‘in my mind’—the world which most psychologists (except the behaviourists) attempt to describe, somewhat unsuccessfully, with the help of what is nothing but a host of metaphors taken from the languages of physics, of biology, and of social life.”

“In so far as a calculus is applied to reality, it loses the character of a logical calculus and becomes a descriptive theory which may be empirically refutable; and in so far as it is treated as irrefutable, i.e. as a system of logically true formulae, rather than a descriptive scientiﬁc theory, it is not applied to reality.”

Send us the most bizarre use of evolutionary psychology you've seen at incrementspodcast@gmail.com.

]]>To answer these questions, we dive into Chapter 9 of Conjectures and Refutations: *Why are the Calculi of Logic and Arithmetic Applicable to Reality?*.

But before we get to that, we touch on some of the good stuff: evolutionary psychology, cunnilingus, and why Robin is better than Batman.

**References**:

- Conjectures and Refutations, Chapter 9: Why are the Calculi of Logic and Arithmetic Applicable to Reality? https://books.google.ca/books?id=iXp9AwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
- Ben on Do Explain with Christofer Lovgren
- Debate between Spelke and Pinker
- Very Bad Wizards discussing the paper "Oral Sex as Infidelity detection" (episode, paper).
- Sturgeon's Law: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sturgeon%27s_law#:~:text=Sturgeon%27s%20law%20(or%20Sturgeon%27s%20revelation,science%20fiction%20author%20and%20critic.
- Eugene Wigner's paper
*The Unreasonable Effective of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences*. - Stoic versus Aristotelian logic. Here is a nice discussion of the differences between the two.
- Rob Wiblin's tweet that all probabilities are subjective probabilities (in an otherwise very good thread).
- Buhler's three functions of language: (i) Expressive, (ii) Signaling, and (iii) Descriptive. See the "Organon Model".
- Piece on Brett Weinstein and Ivermectin.

**Quotes:**

“The indescribable world I have in mind is, of course, the world I have ‘in my mind’—the world which most psychologists (except the behaviourists) attempt to describe, somewhat unsuccessfully, with the help of what is nothing but a host of metaphors taken from the languages of physics, of biology, and of social life.”

“In so far as a calculus is applied to reality, it loses the character of a logical calculus and becomes a descriptive theory which may be empirically refutable; and in so far as it is treated as irrefutable, i.e. as a system of logically true formulae, rather than a descriptive scientiﬁc theory, it is not applied to reality.”

Send us the most bizarre use of evolutionary psychology you've seen at incrementspodcast@gmail.com.

]]>- How mathematical explanation differs from explanation in the natural sciences
- Counterfactual reasoning in mathematics
- Intra versus extra mathematical explanation
- Alternate logics
- Mathematical thought experiments
- The use of probability in the courtroom

References:

- The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences by Eugene Wigner.
- Proofs and Refutations by Imre Lakatos.

*Mark Colyvan is a professor of philosophy at the University of Sydney, and a visiting professor (and, previously, Humboldt fellow) at Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich. He has a wide array of research interests, including the philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of logic, decision theory, environmental philosophy, and ecology. He has authored three books: The Indispensability of Mathematics (Oxford University Press, 2001), Ecological Orbits: How Planets Move and Populations Grow (Oxford University Press, 2004, co-authored with Lev Ginzburg), and An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mathematics (Cambridge University Press, 2012).*

Special Guest: Mark Colyvan.

]]>- How mathematical explanation differs from explanation in the natural sciences
- Counterfactual reasoning in mathematics
- Intra versus extra mathematical explanation
- Alternate logics
- Mathematical thought experiments
- The use of probability in the courtroom

References:

- The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences by Eugene Wigner.
- Proofs and Refutations by Imre Lakatos.

*Mark Colyvan is a professor of philosophy at the University of Sydney, and a visiting professor (and, previously, Humboldt fellow) at Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich. He has a wide array of research interests, including the philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of logic, decision theory, environmental philosophy, and ecology. He has authored three books: The Indispensability of Mathematics (Oxford University Press, 2001), Ecological Orbits: How Planets Move and Populations Grow (Oxford University Press, 2004, co-authored with Lev Ginzburg), and An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mathematics (Cambridge University Press, 2012).*

Special Guest: Mark Colyvan.

]]>In this episode we discuss:

- The TCS parenting movement
- Chesto's tweet to Deutsch
- How Popper's Three Worlds differs from Deutsch's Things/Qualia/Abstractions classification
- Would prime numbers exist if humans didn't exist?
- What constitutes reality?
- The existence of non-physical entities and the reality of abstractions

Having a quick glance at the following wikipedia pages will help ground the conversation:

Errata:

- Somewhere Vaden says English is a formal language. Nope definitely not - English is
*natural*language, which is distinct from a*formal*language.

Send us your best guess for whether or not we're real at *incrementspodcast@gmail.com.*

In this episode we discuss:

- The TCS parenting movement
- Chesto's tweet to Deutsch
- How Popper's Three Worlds differs from Deutsch's Things/Qualia/Abstractions classification
- Would prime numbers exist if humans didn't exist?
- What constitutes reality?
- The existence of non-physical entities and the reality of abstractions

Having a quick glance at the following wikipedia pages will help ground the conversation:

Errata:

- Somewhere Vaden says English is a formal language. Nope definitely not - English is
*natural*language, which is distinct from a*formal*language.

Send us your best guess for whether or not we're real at *incrementspodcast@gmail.com.*